What is a Small Breed Dog?
When I started looking for a purebred dog (and didn't want a Saint Bernard), I discovered that The American Kennel Club (AKC) treats dog sizes just like a clothing store: Xsmall, Small, Medium, Large and XLarge. Eeek! What if I end up with something “Toy”? Some investigation was clearly in order before I have to fasten my leash around a teacup.
So, what is a small breed dog? Classification is dependent primarily on weight: Any dog less than 22 lbs (10 kg) qualifies as a small dog breed. If it weighs less than 4 lbs (1.8 kg ) at an age of 12 months it is called a teacup dog. In case you're wondering, "Teacup" is not an officially recognized breed or even technical term and is not used by the main breed registries.
What About the ”Toy” breeds?
In the UK the Toy breed is a recognized group that is described as a small companion or lap dog. Others fall into the group just because of size. The Kennel Club of the UK lists 24 breeds in the “Toy” group.
The American Kennel Club (AKC) also has a “Toy” group but it only lists 21 breeds.
Are There Borderline Toy/Small Dog Breed Cases?
Yes, there are:
- Smaller “Large” dogs and bigger “Small” dogs fall into the “medium” category.
- Larger “Toy” dogs like some Spaniels (Cavalier King Charles), the Havanese, the Italian Greyhound, some terriers (the Manchester), the Pug, and some Miniatures (the Poodle and the Pinscher) can all be classified as small dogs.
Interestingly, the sizing for dog harnesses overlap quite a bit.
The measurements taken for a dog harness are around the chest (all the way around the rib cage and the back) and the neck on top of the shoulders.
As a result, a “Small” breed dog could fall into a “Medium” size category even if the weight does not suggest it.
Which are the Most Popular Small Dog Breeds?
In America, the AKC lists these small breeds as the top 10 for 2018:
- French Bulldog
- Toy Poodle
- Yorkshire Terrier
- Pembroke Welsh Corgi
- Miniature Schnauzer
- Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
- Shih Tzu
- Boston Terrier
In the UK, the 10 most popular small dog breeds are:
- Bichon Frise
- Shih Tzu
- Yorkshire Terrier
- Toy Poodle
- French Bulldog
When was the First Small Breed Registered and What was it?
The female’s weight range is 20-25 pounds and the male is 25-30 pounds, so they just make it into the small dog breeds and that is where you will find them on the modern AKC list.
The Cocker breed standard came much later.
In the first studbook of the UK’s “The Kennel Club”, dated 1859 - 1874, the list of 40 breeds includes about a dozen breeds that are today grouped in the “small” dog category of the AKC.
It includes the Cocker Spaniel, Beagle, several Terriers, and other breeds like "greyhounds" that have since diversified into more than one breed.
Were Registration Numbers Influenced by Fashion, Celebrities, etc?.
And the results have not always been good for the dogs.
Many people attribute the upsurge in the small dog craze (specifically "purse dogs") to Paris Hilton, but small dogs have always been a celebrity favorite.
- Benji (Benji) was a mix but was called a Border Terrier
- Moonie and Gidget (Legally Blonde) were Chihuahuas
Are New Small Breeds Still Registered?
Yes. Some recently registered small dog breeds are:
- Azawakh (2019)
- American Hairless Terrier (2016)
But the rules have changed to ensure that the dog’s life and health are protected.
In the UK the Breed Watch programme identifies breeds with problems (e.g. pugs with eyes that bulge too much or that labor to breathe). Freak dogs that are little more than cruel products of breeders’ lack of ethics are not tolerated anymore.
How Frequently are New Small Breeds Registered in Comparison to Large Breeds?
During the last 10 years, more large breed dogs were registered by the AKC than small breeds.
Working dogs are in high demand in law enforcement, security, search-and-rescue, etc. These dogs as well as many show dogs, tend to be larger breeds.
Crossbreed small dogs, like the Pomsky, are not a recognized breed. With good reason, in my opinion.
How Well are Small Dogs Suited to Different Roles?
- Companion dog - most small dog breeds do very well as companion dogs. Their size is a plus point. Examples are Chihuahuas, Yorkies, Shih Tzus, Miniature Schnauzers, Pugs, Boston Terriers, and Maltese Poodles.
- Pet or lapdog - not all pet dogs are lap dogs - it depends on the breed - but small dogs do quite well as both. Examples are Pomeranians, French Bulldogs, Bichon Frisés, and Affenpinschers.
- Child’s dog - careful now, just because a dog is small does not mean it can’t inflict a painful bite. Small dogs can be quite cantankerous when they grow older as well and may not tolerate a child’s play. So here are a few examples of small dog breeds that are also suitable as a child’s dog: Beagles, Miniature Poodles, Basset Hounds, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.
- Working dog - small dogs are also working dogs, even if they are not officially registered as Working Group dogs. Terriers were bred to be small to use in hunting prey that bolt down holes. A good example is the Jack Russell Terrier. They have a fierce hunting instinct and because of their breeding needs lots of vigorous exercise. Small dogs are increasingly used as therapy dogs and psychiatric service dogs. Some examples are Havanese, Miniature Schnauzers, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Lhasa Apsos, Chihuahuas, Corgis, and Dachshunds.
- Guide dog - the breeds that are most commonly cited as guide dogs are large breeds. The most important characteristic of a good guide dog is temperament. But the size and weight is a physical reality and should enable the dog to work beside a person and use public transportation. Although small dogs make great companions for people with disabilities, they are not ideal to serve as guide dogs.
- Guard dog - a guard dog is a dog that alerts its owner to something or someone unusual or unexpected. It is not an attack dog. Chihuahuas are surprisingly good at being guard dogs and will make an unholy noise when they perceive anything unusual or threatening. Other good small guard dogs are Jack Russells, Dachshunds, and Yorkies.
Small dog breeds are as different in needs and temperament as large dogs.
They just come in smaller packages.
So do your homework before getting a small dog breed - do not assume it’s a pushover just because of its size!
Do Small Dogs Need Special Nutrition?
Yes, they do.
Their metabolic rate is higher than medium and large dogs, but their stomachs are smaller (duhhhh, but it’s important!). As a result, they need to consume more calories per pound of body weight than large dogs.
Small dog food should, therefore, be more calorie dense than other dog food and the kibbles must be smaller in size.
Senior small dogs do not suffer from arthritis as much as larger dogs in their senior years. This being said, it does not mean that they have to eat special food without the supplements that address canine arthritis.
Consult with your veterinarian to make sure that your dog does not have a food allergy or food sensitivity. If it does, it may need a special diet.
How Much Should Small Dogs be Fed?
Small dog puppies burn their food so fast they need a high-calorie food three to four times a day, or even up to six times a day.
Adult small dogs need a meal at least two to three times a day.
It is not a good idea to keep the bowl filled at all times so the dog can graze at will.
Dogs will eat as much as they can, and more, leading to obesity. This condition creates many health problems and shortens the dog’s life.
Do Small Dogs Need Grooming?
Yes, but it depends on their coat length and how they live.
A dog that indulges in lots of splashing in muddy water will require more bathing than a sedate lapdog spending its days watching TV on the couch!
Do Some Small Dog Breeds Need More or Different Grooming than Others?
The Bichon Frise has hair that requires a lot of grooming to prevent matting.
Other breeds like Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, Havanese, Pekingese, Pomeranians, and Shih Tzus all need regular and thorough grooming.
- Australian Terrier
- Coton de Tulear
- Lhasa Apso
- Maltese Poodles
- Miniature Poodle
- Powderpuff Chinese Crested
- Silky Terrier
- Skye Terrier
- Toy Poodle
- Yorkshire Terrier
Beagles and Italian greyhounds have short coats that need very little grooming.
Is a Daily Walk Enough Exercise for Small Dogs?
If it is long enough and depending on the breed, yes.
Age, weight and breed will determine the amount of exercise that a small dog needs. Generally, a walk of about half an hour to an hour should be enough. Work up to it gradually if your dog is not used to such a long walk.
You can also exercise a small dog by playing fetch and tug with toys.
Should Small Dogs be Carried?
Not unless it’s absolutely necessary.
Small dogs must be socialized and must be given the chance to be in control of their lives. Sweeping them off the ground without warning leads to stress.
How would you feel if the ground could disappear below you at any time? And see the section below about training.
Important: there is actually a RIGHT WAY to pick up a small dog.
Do you know how? It’s not scruffing.
Can Small Dogs Compete in Dog Sports?
Yes, definitely, and it is excellent physical, mental, and social exercise.
Small dogs are especially good at:
- Agility sports
Nosework and scent work are also accessible for small dogs - it’s about the nose, not the size.
Sniffer dogs are usually big ones because they are also working in law enforcement. However, when it comes to sniffing for the fun of it (and the competition).
General Training for House-Bound Small Dogs
It is a lot easier to pick up a small dog and remove it from the scene of the crime than training it to behave.
But it is a mistake!!!
And even if it is house-bound, you still want it to be a pleasure when your friends come to visit instead of a pain.
Small dogs are every bit as capable, and need it as much, to learn obedience training with positive reinforcement techniques. It should understand, and learn the appropriate response to, basic commands.
House training a small dog is no different than a big dog, but small bladders need emptying more often.
Do not make it hold it too long or you may encourage bladder infection, not to mention unnecessary “accidents” in the house.
You do need a little adjustment in your training when dealing with small dogs.
Your size is intimidating to them so get some tips on how to accomplish training without turning your dog into a fearful, yappy little squirt.
Your small dog is not a doll, it should be respected and socialized like a real dog.
Training for Specific Purposes
- Agility training is great for small dogs. Just like any dog it must be at least 18 months old and in good health. The obstacles are specially adapted for smaller breeds so don’t worry that your doggie will have to exert itself in unfair competition.
- Flyball puts your smal dog in a distinctly advantageous position. This sport is a relay race over hurdles that are set to the team’s smallest dog! Yippee! Everyone wants a chihuahua!
- You can train your dog for anything if it has the intelligence and the temperament and you have the patience. Some of the most trainable small dog breeds are Poodles, Papillons, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, and Miniature Schnauzers.
Common Health Problems in Small Dog Breeds
- Patellar Luxation - dislocated kneecap
- Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD) - spinal disc problems
- Pancreatitis - affects smaller breeds more often
- Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome - upper airway problems
- Ectropion - rolled-out eyelids
All of the above are explained in detail here.
Health Problems in Specific Small Dog Breeds
- Pugs - eye problems mainly because of eyes bulging so much they fall out.
- Beagles - there seems to be more cases of epilepsy inn Beagles than other breeds.
- Shi Tzu - patellar luxation also known as wobbling kneecaps.
- Dachshund - back and spine problems.
- Cocker Spaniel - ear infections.
- Yorkies - Portosystemic shunt (PSS), a blood vessel birth defect
- Poodles - Glaucoma (eyes).
- Miniature Schnauzer - this breed tends to get diabetes more often than other breeds.
- Chihuahua - Collapsing trachea.
- Pomeranians - AlopeciaX (hair loss due to impaired Vitamin D generation ability).
- Maltese - Little White Shaker Syndrome (the whole body shakes - cause may be autoimmune related)
- Boston Terrier - Cherry Eye (eye gland that pops out).
- French Bulldog - Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome.
- Cavalier King Charles Spaniel - Mitral Valve Disease (a heart disease).
All of the above is explained in detail here.
Some Famous Small Dogs
Move over RinTinTin and Lassie. Here are some small but famous canines:
- Smoky, the war hero Yorky.
- Sinbad, the Chief Petty Officer dog in the Coast Guard.
- Toto, the star of The Wizard of Oz. It was a Cairn Terrier. The other one was Judy Garland? 1939? Get thee an education!
- Benji, the film star (and all his successors, also named Benji).
- Boo, the first internet dog celebrity, who was a Pomeranian.
- Lentil Bean, the French Bulldog - therapy dog for children with cleft palates.
- Laika. Hate to mention it but this dog was sent into space by the Russians in 1957 and died almost immediately. At least it got a small memorial for giving its life to science. Unlike many, many others.
A Few Curious Breeds of Small Dogs
Is said to hail from the days of the Vikings.
It looks a bit like a small shepherd dog and in fact they were cattle herders
They can have three kinds of tail.
Bred for the very specialized task of hunting puffins!
Their paws have at least six fully functioning toes and extra paw pads.
The neck can bend back so far that the head touches the spine.
The ears can fold shut and the forelegs can turn so far sideways they end up perpendicular to the body of the dog!
An extreme acrobat!
In profile the head looks just like that of a lamb and it also has white curly hair.
A lamb dog?
No but they were used by gypsies for poaching and by English miners for ratting.
Funny Small Dogs
Funny small dogs abound everywhere.
Dogmatix doesn’t intend to be funny, but often is.
Odie is a funny duhhh - bad luck to be paired with a smart cat like Garfield!
And the granddaddy of them all - Snoopy!
Do you like cats?
If not, then beware the Basenji. He may look like a dog, but truth be told–he’s actually part kitty. And he flaunts his feline side shamelessly.
In fact, he’s got so much cat in him that this crazy breed refuses to bark! Yep, that’s right, he’s barkless.
But don’t get too excited: he’s not silent. The Basenji has his own unique ways of making himself heard. Ways that are loud and clear…Read More
Ah, the Beagle.
A happy-go-lucky little hound dog with the cutest face of the canine world. These pups may have been bred to hunt, but they are huge heartthrobs, too.
Which explains why they’re the 6th most popular dog in the U.S. Heck, even Charlie Brown had one (little Snoopy was a Beagle, after all!).
But before you fall in love with those floppy ears and puppy-dog eyes, read up on the breed. He’s a dog that lives to smell and loves to “sing”. Which can be problematic if you prize your sanity.Read More
The Border Terrier is right on the border between tough and affectionate.
He’s a pup that means business when it comes to hunting and chasing small animals. But at home, he’s good-tempered and loving.
In fact, he’s not as terrier-like as you might think. Unlike most terriers that were bred to work alone, the Border has a different backstory that makes him a bit unique.Read More
The name Boston Terrier is actually kind of deceiving. These pups aren’t classified as terriers at all, but instead are part of the non-sporting group.
So you don’t have to worry about that terrorizing terrier temperament!
On the contrary, most Bostons are sweet, cuddly, and clownish. They’re also eager to please and are very adaptable to their owner’s lifestyle.
But beware: the Boston is also noisy. And I’m not referring to barking. Most dogs bark. But the Boston Terrier does just a little bit more…Read More
Are you a Star Wars fan?
Did you just die of adorableness the first time you saw an Ewok? I know I sure did.
Unfortunately those big, mystical teddy bears don’t actually exist. (Thank you, fantasy.) But the little creature that inspired them is alive and well in the real world! Yep, you guessed it:
The Brussels Griffon was George Lucas’ inspiration for Ewoks.
And rightly so. The Brussels Griffon is a rather rare breed that could use some more recognition. He’s a tiny toy dog with a huge heart for snuggles and affection.Read More
Do you know what a Cairn Terrier is?
Chances are you may not. The breed isn’t super well known by name.
So let’s try something else. You know Toto from The Wizard of Oz? Well, that’s a Cairn! He was the spunky, fearless, mischievous little dog that belonged to Dorothy.
And after seeing that timeless little canine, you might just want a Toto of your very own.
But remember: happy, lively, and cute though he was, Toto was a terrier. And you know what that means…Toto the Cairn Terrier was actually Toto the Cairn Terror.Read More
The Cardigan Welsh Corgi, or Cardi, is one of two Corgi breeds. To recognize him from his cousin (Pembroke Welsh Corgi), you can remember the Cardi as the Corgi with a tail.
But a fluffy spinal protrusion isn’t all the Cardi has. He’s also got a history dating back about 3,000 years! And if you could time travel, you’d find that people back then thought the Cardi was pretty special.
But I’ll let you judge the breed for yourself. Just be aware that all the historical evidence does in fact point to a 10 on the canine awesomeness scale!Read More
I’d be willing to bet a million dollars you know what a Chihuahua is.
You might not be able to spell it, but you sure can recognize this little dog when you see one. And chances are, you’re either a Chi-lover or a Chi-hater.
Unfortunately, the breed has a bit of a bad rap, so there’s not a lot of people in between those two extremes.
But you should know that not all Chihuahuas fit the negative stereotype.
In fact, having a well-rounded Chihuahua is perfectly possible, so long as you’re willing to find out how!Read More
If you’re looking for a small, naked pup, then the Chinese Crested might be your pooch.
These dogs are the smallest of the hairless breeds and make excellent snuggle buddies.
In fact, they’re believed to have been bred specifically to keep bedridden people company!
So they’re the perfect companion if you like lounging around.
Plus, the breed is rumored to have healing powers. So that’s pretty cool, too, just in case you do happen to get a cold.Read More
The Cocker Spaniel is a breed that’s been adored for years.
He was America’s most popular dog during the 1940’s, 50’s, and again in the 80’s.
Which in total, added up to 18 years in the spotlight!
Why all the hype?
If you watch Disney’s Lady and the Tramp, you’ll probably see why.
The main character, Lady, is the perfect depiction of this cheerful, elegant, and soft-tempered breed.
But unfortunately, there’s at least one downside to Cocker ownership that Disney failed to share…Read More
Have you ever looked at a cotton ball and wished that it was sentient?
Okay, that’s a little silly…you probably haven’t. (But, hey, pet rocks were a thing, so why not pet cotton balls?)
Just kidding. Well, kinda.
Even if you haven’t fantasized about live cotton balls, chances are you can’t say no to a Coton de Tulear.
This relatively new breed is not very well known. (At least not yet.)
But he sure has a lot of love and fluffiness to share! So go ahead and indulge in your sentient cotton ball dreams.Read More
You may not know what a Dachshund is. And if you do, chances are you can’t pronounce it.
But if I say weiner dog, you probably know what kind of pup I mean.
The Dachshund, or Doxie, is a dog of many nicknames. But weiner dog is probably the most common.
You may think this pup got his name from the very tasty hot dog. But actually, it was the other way around…
Hot dogs used to be called dachshund sausages. The phrase “hot dog” came later.
But whatever the name, the pup still came before the roasted campfire delight!Read More
Do you love the sweet temperament of the Cocker Spaniel, but want a dog with a longer snout and a bit more energy?
Then take a look at the English Cocker Spaniel!
The breed may not have been as popular as its American counterpart, but the English Cocker still makes a wonderful pet.
And because their sporting instincts are more deeply ingrained, they’re also more lively and active.
Elegance and energy. The English Cocker has a perfect balance of both!Read More
If you want a dog that’s made of silk, then the Havanese is about as close as you can get.
These sociable and happy pups are known for their elegant locks. But fine, silky strands aren’t the only option.
The Havanese is one of the few breeds that can totally pull off the dreadlock look.
It’s not a hairdo you’ll see every day on this pup. (The process of cording a Havanese can take up to two years!)
But if you’re up for the challenge, dreads look terrific on this breed.Read More
At first glance, you’d probably say the Italian Greyhound was built for speed.
And you’d be right.
He’s a little athlete that loves running. In fact, he’ll sometimes have random energy spasms and just start dashing around the house for no reason.
But sprinting isn’t all the Italian Greyhound likes to do.
Despite his love for running, the breed has actually managed to dub himself with a nickname that isn’t particularly athletic.Read More
If you’re one of those people that loves dogs but hates cats, then beware!
The Japanese Chin may be canine in looks. But on the inside, he’s a purebred kitty.
A dog of royal Chinese and Japanese heritage, the Chin was bred to be doted upon. And though he’ll love and adore you, he’s also likely to see you as his servant.
This pup’s predecessors lived in palaces and were waited on tongue and paw. And the modern day Chin is no less expectant of royal treatment.Read More
The Lhasa Apso of Tibet was a special breed that couldn’t be purchased because it was rarely sold.
Instead, these dogs were given as prized gifts.
Thankfully, the breed is much easier to come across today. But if you do get a Lhasa, make sure to treat him with the utmost respect:
For according to Tibetan Buddhists, dogs are the step just prior to…Read More
The Miniature Pinscher is known as the “King of Toys”.
And if you watch the way he walks, it should be no wonder why. The Min Pin doesn’t just romp along. He marches.
Well, officially his movement is called the hackney gait. Which basically just means that he high-steps as a Hackney horse would.
But his kingliness doesn’t just extend to his appearance and way of walking. This toy breed is an all-around ruler.Read More
If you haven’t heard of a Norwich Terrier before, chances are you’re thinking, “Uh-oh, another typical terrier-type”.
But think again. You may be happy to hear that the Norwich isn’t the terrier-est pup out there.
Sure, he’s got a mind of his own. And a strong instinct to chase things and dig in the garden.
But the Norwich has a lot going for him, too. He’s tremendously affectionate and is actually eager to please.
What made him more sociable than some of his other terrier cousins?
Well, that’s a very good question. And the answer is…Read More
There are so many Russell-type terriers that it can be hard to keep them straight!
For instance, people sometimes confuse the Parson Russell Terrier with the (Jack) Russell Terrier. But the two are actually different.
(Even though they both share the same strong-willed, terrier temperament!)
Speaking of which, the Parson Russell is definitely a dog for the experienced owner.
You’ll need to know a couple things about…Read More
The Pembroke Welsh Corgi is totally a dog that just stepped out of a fairy tale.
I mean look at her! Those huge ears and tiny legs are to die for!
The Pembroke Welsh Corgi is associated with fairy tales. According to Welsh legend, elves and fairies used these dogs to…Read More
If you’re looking for a couch potato pup, then the Russell Terrier is definitely NOT for you!
These dogs have a huge amount of energy and brain power. Which means they’ll need a lot of exercise and mental stimulation.
They’ll also need a knowledgeable owner.
The terrier personality is VERY pronounced in these little dogs. So you’ll need to understand…Read More
Even if you don’t know a lot about Scottish Terriers, chances are you already have a pretty good mental image of this feisty little terrier.
The Scottish Terrier, or Scottie for short, is a popular and iconic breed.
With his long beard, short legs, and scruffy appearance, how could you not…Read More
Let’s clear something up:
Lassie was a Collie, not a Shetland Sheepdog. And yes, the two are different.
Sure, they’re both fluffy and have wedge-shaped heads. But the Shetland Sheepdog, or Sheltie, is about half the size of his Collie cousin.
Smaller doesn’t mean dumber, though.
In fact, the smaller Sheltie is the…Read More
Shih Tzu actually translates to “little lion”. And while the breed may not seem very lion-like, he just might’ve been.
It’ said that a Tibetan Buddhist God brought along a Shih Tzu on his travels. And when needed, that little lion dog could transform into an actual lion.
Pretty awesome, right?
But as intimidating as it sounds…Read More
If you’re interested in getting a Tibetan Terrier, you might want to consider naming him Lucky.
In Tibet where the breed originated, these dogs were considered good luck charms.They were often given as gifts to bring good fortune to loved ones.
But money-grubbers, beware! The Tibetan had the potential to bring bad luck to some…Read More
Ever heard of Cesar’s dog food?
Most dog owners probably have.
And whether or not your dog is a Cesar’s food fan, you can’t deny that the company makes awesome commercials.
But only because they know how to play up the cute factor by starring a fluffy, white Westie.
Yup. Even if you’ve never met a Westie in person, chances are…Read More
The Wirehaired Fox Terrier was named for his role in traditional British foxhunts.
At least that’s what he wants you to think.
In reality, the inclusion of “fox” in this breed’s name is telling in more ways than one.
And no, I don’t mean that this dog looks like a fox.
I mean that…Read More
The Yorkshire Terrier is a huge fan-favorite. The 10th most popular dog in the U.S., to be exact.
These elegant pups don’t hesitate to flaunt their gorgeous silky coat.
But beauty isn’t all a Yorkie has. He’s also got a terrier-ish taste for adventure.
Plus, he sometimes sounds like a…Read More